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Sunday, March 3, 2019

Diabetes: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

Diabetes: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment


Diabetes is a disease of the endocrine system, which arises due to insulin deficiency and is characterized by metabolic disturbances and, in particular, carbohydrate metabolism. Diabetes is a disease of the endocrine system, which arises due to insulin deficiency and is characterized by metabolic disturbances and, in particular, carbohydrate metabolism. In diabetes, the pancreas loses its ability to secrete the required amount of insulin or to produce insulin of the desired quality.



The name "diabetes ", according to the resolution of the World Health Organization in 1985, is the name of a whole list of diseases that have common features: the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood rises according to various factors for the owner of any of these diseases.


Diabetes is a rarely diagnosed Disease.

There are a number of factors that predispose to the appearance of diabetes. In the first place is a genetic predisposition; the second leading cause of diabetes is obesity; the third reason is some diseases that result in the defeat of beta cells producing insulin (these are diseases of the pancreas — pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, diseases of other endocrine glands). The fourth reason - a variety of viral infections (rubella, chickenpox, epidemic hepatitis, and some other diseases, including influenza); in fifth place is nervous stress as a predisposing factor; in sixth place among the risk factors - age. The older the person, the more reason he has to be afraid of diabetes. It is believed that with an increase in age for every ten years, the likelihood of diabetes is doubled.

In rare cases, some hormonal disorders lead to diabetes, sometimes diabetes is caused by a lesion of the pancreas that occurs after using certain medications or as a result of prolonged alcohol abuse.

Depending on the causes of the rise in blood glucose, diabetes is divided into two main groups: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.


Type 1 

Diabetes is insulin-dependent. It is associated with damage to the pancreas, absolute insufficiency of its own insulin, and requires the introduction of insulin. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs at a young age (young people under the age of 30 mostly suffer from this form of diabetes).

Type 2

The second type of diabetes is insulin-dependent. It is associated with damage to the pancreas, absolute insufficiency of its own insulin, and requires the introduction of insulin. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs at a young age (young people under the age of 30 mostly suffer from this form of diabetes).

The second type of diabetes - insulin-independent, occurs due to relative insulin deficiency. In the early stages of the disease, insulin administration is usually not required. Type 2 diabetes is a disease of mature age (they mostly suffer from the elderly). In such patients, insulin is produced, and, by dieting, leading an active lifestyle, these people can achieve that for quite a long time the sugar level will be normal, and complications can be safely avoided. The treatment of this type of diabetes may be limited only to the intake of tablet preparations, however, in some patients, over time, there is a need for additional insulin administration. This is not a mild form of diabetes, as previously thought since diabetes type 2 is one of the main risk factors for coronary heart disease (angina pectoris, myocardial infarction), hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.



Symptoms

There is a complex of symptoms characteristic of diabetes of both types: frequent urination and the feeling of unquenchable thirst; rapid weight loss, often with good appetite; feeling weak or tired; fast fatiguability; blurred vision ("white veil" before the eyes); decrease in sexual activity, potency; numbness and tingling in the limbs; feeling of heaviness in the legs; dizziness; protracted course of infectious diseases; slow wound healing; drop in body temperature below the average mark; cramps gastrocnemius muscles.

There are cases when a chronic increase in blood sugar for some time may not have such typical manifestations of diabetes as thirst or a significant increase in the daily amount of urine. And only with the passage of time, patients pay attention to general weakness, persistent bad mood, itching, frequent pustular skin lesions, progressive weight loss.

For the onset of type 1 diabetes is characterized by a rapid deterioration of health and more pronounced symptoms of dehydration. Such patients need urgent administration of insulin preparations. Without appropriate treatment, a life-threatening condition can occur - diabetic coma. With regard to type 2 diabetes, in almost all cases, weight loss and considerable exercise can prevent the progression of diabetes and normalize blood sugar levels.

In order to establish the diagnosis of diabetes, it is necessary to determine the level of sugar in the blood. When the level of blood sugar on an empty stomach is less than 7.0 mmol / l, but more than 5.6 mmol / l, a glucose tolerance test must be performed to clarify the state of carbohydrate metabolism. The procedure for this test is as follows: after determining the fasting blood sugar (fasting period of at least 10 hours), you must take 75 g of glucose. The next measurement of blood sugar is done after 2 hours. If the blood sugar level is more than 11.1, we can talk about the presence of diabetes. If the blood sugar level is less than 11.1 mmol / l, but more than 7.8 mmol / l, they indicate a violation of carbohydrate tolerance. With lower blood sugar levels, the sample should be repeated after 3-6 months.

Treatment depends on the type of diabetes. Type I diabetes should always be treated with insulin, compensating for its absence in the body. Type II diabetes can first be treated with a diet, and if this treatment is deficient, tablets are added (antidiabetic oral medications, ie, taken orally); as the disease progresses, the person switches to insulin therapy. In most countries of the modern world, the need of patients for insulin is completely covered by genetically engineered human insulin. These are biosynthetic or recombinant human insulin and all dosage forms derived from it. According to the International Diabetes Federation, at the end of 2004, more than 65% of the countries of the world used only human genetic insulin for the treatment of patients with diabetes.

There are short-acting drugs, drugs of average duration and long-acting drugs. Along with them, insulin analogs with additional properties are also used. These include insulin ultrashort action and long-term (prolonged) action. As a rule, these drugs are injected subcutaneously, but if necessary, intramuscularly or intravenously.

It is firmly established that diabetes cannot be infected, as infected with influenza or tuberculosis. Diabetes is rightly referred to as a disease of civilization, that is, the cause of diabetes in many cases is excessive, rich in easily digestible carbohydrates, "civilized" food.

Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disease in the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), diabetes is the fourth leading cause of premature death, and according to forecasts, over the next 10 years, the number of deaths from diabetes will increase by more than 50% if immediate measures are not taken.

Despite all the efforts of health organizations and national programs to combat this disease in many countries of the world, the number of patients with such a diagnosis is constantly growing. The incidence of diabetes is increasing not only within the age group over 40 years old; more and more children and adolescents are among the diseased. According to the International Diabetes Federation and WHO, there are currently over 200 million people with diabetes in all countries of the world.

According to experts, by 2010 this figure will increase to 239.4 million, and by 2030 - up to 380 million. More than 90% of cases, in this case, fall into type 2 diabetes.

These values can be greatly underestimated since up to 50% of patients with diabetes today remain undiagnosed. These people do not receive any sugar-lowering therapy and maintain stable hyperglycemia, which creates favorable conditions for the development of vascular and other diseases.

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